Majorana update

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If you are, by any chance, following progress in the field of Majorana bound states, then you are for sure super excited about ample Majorana results arriving this Fall. On the other hand, if you just heard about these elusive states recently, it is time for an update. For physicists working in the field, this Fall was perhaps the most exciting time since the first experimental reports from 2012. In the last few weeks there was not only one, but at least three interesting manuscripts reporting new insightful data which may finally provide a definitive experimental verification of the existence of these states in condensed matter systems.

But before I dive into these new results, let me give a brief history on the topic of  Majorana states and their experimental observation. The story starts with the young talented physicist Ettore Majorana, who hypothesized back in 1937 the existence of fermionic particles which were their own antiparticles. These hypothetical particles, now called Majorana fermions, were proposed in the context of elementary particle physics, but never observed. Some 60 years later, in the early 2000s, theoretical work emerged showing that Majorana fermionic states can exist as the quasiparticle excitations in certain low-dimensional superconducting systems (not a real particle as originally proposed, but otherwise having the exact same properties). Since then theorists have proposed half a dozen possible ways to realize Majorana modes using readily available materials such as superconductors, semiconductors, magnets, as well as topological insulators (for curious readers, I recommend manuscripts [1, 2, 3] for an overview of the different proposed methods to realize Majorana states in the lab).

The most fascinating thing about Majorana states is that they belong to the class of anyons, which means that they behave neither as bosons nor as fermions upon exchange. For example, if you have two identical fermionic (or bosonic) states and you exchange their positions, the quantum mechanical function describing the two states will acquire a phase factor of -1 (or +1). Anyons, on the other hand, can have an arbitrary phase factor eiφ upon exchange. For this reason, they are considered to be a starting point for topological quantum computation. If you want to learn more about anyons, check out the video below featuring IQIM’s Gil Refael and Jason Alicea.